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When active, this “default network,” uses up to 30 percent more caloric energy than other parts of the brain . Researchers surmise that energy is being used to process all the experiences and information we’ve taken in, and to develop new synaptic connections. In turn, those synaptic networks improve our ability to solve and respond to problems.

Mental breaks and relaxation also help keep stress chemicals at bay, reducing the likelihood of feeling, or becoming, overwhelmed and reactive.

Mental breaks and relaxation also help keep stress chemicals at bay, reducing the likelihood of feeling, or becoming, overwhelmed and reactive.

Two other key self-care factors that help nurture resilience: Spending time outdoors and surrounding yourself with people you enjoy.

Research suggests that spending just 20 minutes outside in nice weather leads to “more expansive and open thinking,” writes Fredrickson — a pro-resiliency mindset. Other studies have shown that time in nature helps combat anxiety and depression, improves immunity, and lowers levels of inflammatory chemicals in the body.

A similarly convincing body of research shows that strong social connections increase our resilience in the face of illness. One 2006 study of nearly 3,000 nurses with breast Modal Scarf Extremely loud 100 by VIDA VIDA QI6NsU
found that those with 10 or more friends were four times more likely to survive the disease than the nurses without close friends.

There’s a reason that the late Norman Cousins relied on Marx Brothers comedies as a primary treatment for his debilitating illness. It’s the same reason that some version of “gallows humor” and “comic relief” have probably been with us since the beginning of time: Everlasty Squareframe Acetate And Goldtone Sunglasses Black Thierry Lasry XkhVBint
in the face of adversity can be profoundly pain relieving, for both the body and mind.

“Playful humor enhances survival for many reasons,” writes resiliency authority Al Siebert in Statement Clutch floral watercolor by VIDA VIDA tyDktBff4K
(Perigee Books, 2010). For one thing, he notes, “Laughing reduces tension to more moderate levels.” And psychologically, choosing levity can be incredibly empowering. “Playing with a situation makes a person more powerful than sheer determination [does],” Siebert explains. “The person who toys with the situation creates an inner feeling of ‘This is my plaything; I am bigger than it . . . I won’t let it scare me.’”

Ruvolo credits a sense of humor with helping her rebound as well. And she thanks her mother for that: “My mom was big on laughter,” Ruvolo says. “She always said that you have to keep laughing. My mother lost two sons , and yes, she had a few problems, but she always laughed and she always told jokes. I truly believe that helps you to understand and to get through.”

Case in point: Ruvolo speaks once a month to troubled teens in a conflict resolution program. Toward the end of each session, she makes a joke about the frozen turkey that came through her windshield on a winter’s night and nearly killed her. “I tell the kids that now for the rest of my life I have to be known as the Turkey Lady. Thank God it was a turkey, and not a ham, because I would have been known as Miss Piggy.”

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Climate Action

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Adaptation to climate change
EU Action

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Adaptation means anticipating the adverse effects of climate change and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimise the damage they can cause, or taking advantage of opportunities that may arise. It has been shown that well planned, early adaptation action saves money and lives later.

Examples of adaptation measures include: using scarce water resources more efficiently; adapting building codes to future climate conditions and extreme weather events; building flood defences and raising the levels of dykes; developing drought-tolerant crops; choosing tree species and forestry practices less vulnerable to storms and fires; and setting aside land corridors to help species migrate.

Adaptation strategies are needed at all levels of administration: at the local, regional, national, EU and also the international level. Due to the varying severity and nature of climate impacts between regions in Europe, most adaptation initiatives will be taken at the regional or local levels. The ability to cope and adapt also differs across populations, economic sectors and regions within Europe.

The Commission adopted an EU adaptation strategy in April 2013 which has been welcomed by the Member States. Complementing the activities of Member States, the strategy supports action by promoting greater coordination and information-sharing between Member States, and by ensuring that adaptation considerations are addressed in all relevant EU policies.

The EU’s role can be particularly appropriate when climate change impacts transcend borders of individual states - such as with river basins - and when impacts vary considerably across regions. The role of the EU can be especially useful to enhance solidarity among Member States and ensure that disadvantaged regions and those most affected by climate change are capable of taking the necessary measures to adapt.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is a scientific body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up s) to review and assess the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change Thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC on a voluntary basis.

In 2007, the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report stated that warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as evidenced from observations at continental, regional and ocean basin scales worldwide. The observed 100-year warming trend (1906-2005) is 0,74°C, and the warmest years on record are all concentrated in the last decade. Other observed climate changes include changes in the Arctic, widespread changes in precipitation amounts, ocean salinity, wind patterns and aspects of extreme weather including droughts, heavy precipitation, heatwaves and the intensity of tropical cyclonesThe temperature increase is widespread over the globe and is greater at higher northern latitudes. Land regions have warmed faster than the oceans.

The IPCC also concluded in 2007 that most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Other discernible human influences on climate comprehend ocean warming, continental-average temperatures, temperature extremes and wind patterns.

All existing climate models are consistent in showing a continued warming trend along the 21st century, though they differ in intensity depending on the amount of emissions expected and on the model used to project warming. In 2007, the likely range of global average warming was estimated to be between 1.1 and 6.4°C, relative to 1980-1999. In March 2009 the International Scientific Congress concluded that the worst-case IPCC scenario trajectories (or even worse) are being realised.

In January 2013 the European Environment Agency (EEA) published its latest report on 'Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012' . The presents evidence on climate trends and impacts in Europe, and future projections. Among the report's main faindings are:

Climate change (increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and decreases in ice and snow) is occurring globally and in Europe; some of these observed changes have established records in recent years. Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society, and include:

Coasts and European seas : overall rise in sea levels; increase in ocean acidification, sea surface temperature and ocean heat content; earlier seasonal appearance of various marine species; northward expansion of some fish and plankton species.

Freshwater systems : changes in river flows, with decreases in southern and eastern and increases in other regions; increases in the reported number of floods, in the frequency and intensity of droughts (in particular in southern Europe), and in water temperature in rivers and lakes.

Observed impacts of climate change are projected to continue due to further climate change. The level of future impacts will depend on the magnitude of climate change and on socio‑economic and environmental factors. Vulnerability to climate change varies widely across regions and sectors in Europe. Particularly vulnerable regions include: Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin (due to heat and droughts), the Alps (due to rapid melting of snow and ice), coastal zones, deltas and floodplains (due to sea level rise, intense rainfall, floods and storms) and Europe's far north, the Arctic and Outermost regions (due to increased global warming).

Economic sectors that rely strongly on certain temperatures and precipitation – from agriculture to forestry, fisheries, energy to tourism – are also highly vulnerable. Water availability and quality are also expected to be affected across Europe.

While society at large is expected to be affected, the most vulnerable (elderly, disabled and low-income households) are likely to be more susceptible to climate impacts.

Biodiversity and ecosystems

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